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    來源:網絡整理? ? 作者:留學生活網? ? 發布時間:2019-07-17 13:51? ? 閱讀: 次? ? 文章分類:范文參考






      The classical school mainly focuses on the maximization of economic efficiency and the role of market forces. This school believes that the market plays the most important role in the development process of an enterprise, and plays an important role in the acquisition of benefits and improvement of efficiency, so as to further ensure the rights and treatment of employees. The market plays a key role in employment while unions or workers' organizations are not necessary and will not play a significant role in the employment of workers in the long run. When analyzing employment related situations, this school generally discusses from the theory of market supply and demand, while ignoring the role and characteristics of trade unions, government policies or other organizations.

      The neoclassical school also believes that the labor market mechanism can not only satisfy the employers' capital accumulation but also satisfy the workers' remuneration, so labor conflicts will be difficult to occur, and the power comparison and game between the two sides will have no essential significance and basically have no effect, and the trade union will become unnecessary. They even believe that labor union or collective action can only have side effects or even negative effects on the operation and development of market mechanism.

      The views of this school were questioned and criticized by other scholars, and many subsequent economic phenomena could not be explained.

      However, this school undoubtedly provides the theoretical basis for the new economic model. The emergence and development of Internet platform enterprises is the product of the highly developed market economy. The development and progress of new labor relations should rely on the power of the market.

      The new institutional school of labor relations represented by John Rogers Commons, Calbraith, John Kenneth and Douglass c. North is also known as orthodox pluralist school. It is developed on the basis of the old institutionalism and an important school of western labor relations that analyzes labor relations problems by institutional analysis. According to this school of thought, the problems of labor relations are mainly caused by two factors. Due to the imperfect market system of enterprises, the master-servant relationships established by this system are autocratic.

      Recognition of new institutional economics is not if we want to fundamentally solve the problem of labor relations, need according to the common interests of both sides of Labour and capital, through the development of the propulsion system and establish a new type of employment, labor conflicts through various institutionalized regulations into both sides abide by the rules of controllable, and successfully resolve these conflicts. This school believes that trade unions and collective bargaining play an important role in safeguarding workers' basic rights. It also attaches great importance to the study of the characteristics and behaviors of trade unions, employers, governments and other organizations, and makes in-depth researches on labor dispute settlement and labor relations policies. In the face of powerful employers who enjoy the initiative, only by forming some effective checks and balances mechanism through solidarity and association can workers maximize their strength and have the opportunity to achieve the balance between labor and capital. They believe that the basic form of labor union is to form a union, carry out the unionization movement, and the basic means of resisting the employer is to engage in collective bargaining with the employer.

      The institutional school, seeing the deficiency of the classical school, tries to make up for the deficiency of the market from the institutional level and emphasizes the establishment of rules and institutions. In Internet platform enterprises, there is a rule vacuum behind the new economic activities, which will lead to a series of problems such as irregular employment and unclear division of rights and interests, which also coincide with the views of some scholars. The theory is mainly from the perspective of management to analyze labor relations, they believe that the employee's sense of identity to the organization, the management model of mutual trust between labor and capital is the most effective way to achieve fairness and efficiency. The main point of this school points out that the fundamental interests of workers and managers are the same, and the conflict occurs because the workers are always in a dependent and subordinate position in the labor-capital relations, and the contradiction is caused by the forced and compulsory obedience. Therefore, the further improvement of labor relations and the resolution of conflicts can be achieved by the two management strategies of high performance or high identity. The implementation of efficient management policies can not only improve labor productivity, but also reduce the resignation rate and absenteeism rate of employees, and at the same time, solve other problems existing in the work.

      According to the personnel management school, employers and employees have the same goal, that is, they hope the enterprise will continue to grow and have sufficient profit space. Therefore, even if there is friction between the two sides in the form or process of labor, there is no inherent contradiction that cannot be reconciled in essence. This school of thought holds that through the sound innovation of enterprise human resource system and comprehensive and professional human resource management practice, the function of trade unions can be replaced, and the harmonious labor relations within the enterprise can be gradually established, thus reducing the trade union movement.

      As a typical representative of the radical school, the marxist school emphasizes that labor interests and capital interests are completely opposite, and the confrontation between capital and labor is the most typical manifestation of labor relations, including the micro differences in the distribution of interests, such as wages and incomes, and further extends to the macroeconomic field. Capitalists are the owners of capital, and workers are often in the position of passive oppression from the labor environment and labor products. Marx believed that under the dominant economic system of capitalism, the unions could not get rapid development, capitalists and entrepreneurs from different aspects restrict development of trade unions, workers must therefore be made to realize only on capital control challenge to solve the problem from the source, to raise awareness of protection of the rights and interests of workers and the lawful rights and interests for determined to fight for, to learning and understanding the antagonism of labor relations, to the challenge of capital.

      Workers must directly become owners and managers of a business if they want to obtain truly just and reasonable benefits. Therefore, a system should be established in which workers are also owners of the means of production and participate in the decisions and profit-sharing of the enterprise. According to the viewpoint of marxist school, Internet platform enterprises enable workers to obtain greater autonomy and flexibility, and employees' personal value and benefits have been significantly improved. However, platform enterprises have absolute control over both product and labor markets. If platform enterprises monopolize both product and labor markets, workers will lose the ability to negotiate or negotiate with enterprises.

      It is not difficult to find that the starting point of labor relations is to solve the problem between labor and capital. From 1870 to 1920, the labor problem in the early industrialized countries began to emerge and develop rapidly. The founders of labor relations in the United States realized that the primary goal of labor relations was to solve the labor problem, but the premise of change was to promote the establishment of a democratic capitalist economic system. In his book, cummins says he now hopes to save capitalism through reform. Therefore, the early labor relations were more of a way to find a balance between liberal capitalism and socialist revolution. The use of labor relations to solve the labor problem is to solve the conflict between ruthless competitive liberal capitalism and traditional labor management methods.


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