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    Essay代寫范文|英國社會保障制度

    來源:網絡整理? ? 作者:留學生活網? ? 發布時間:2019-08-05 16:16? ? 閱讀: 次? ? 文章分類:范文參考

    文章關鍵詞:Essay代寫范文


    文章導讀:本文是一篇Essay代寫范文 ,本文主要討論了英國的社會保障制度。戰后和平提高了國民物質文明水平,英國政府開始主動積極的制定社會保障計劃,讓每個國民在任何情況下都可以體面...

      本文是一篇Essay代寫范文 ,本文主要討論了英國的社會保障制度。戰后和平提高了國民物質文明水平,英國政府開始主動積極的制定社會保障計劃,讓每個國民在任何情況下都可以體面的生活。社會保障計劃逐步改善了國民的住宅、生活和城市環境,幫助失業者和貧困者擺脫不幸等等。社會保障制度作為一種長期戰略,促進英國經濟制度的廣泛發展和不斷完善,保障英國全體公民的基本生活需要,是英國重建計劃的一個重要組成部分,這對英國建立福利國家有著重大的影響。

    Essay代寫范文|英國社會保障制度

      Capitalism has laid a material foundation for the charity of Christianity, and the charity thought in Christianity has also laid a spiritual and theoretical foundation for the development of the social security system of capitalism. Religious culture has a wide influence in Europe and it always advocates charity. Christianity declared that "all men are the children of god, and all men are brothers in the four seas. In early Europe, the propaganda of "benevolence" and "charity and relief" in religious ethics had a profound impact on later generations and played an important role in the establishment of social security system in Britain. At the same time, the principle of public and egalitarian distribution of property implemented by the early Christian societies provided the basis for the establishment of welfare distribution methods in Britain. Religion has a huge organization system, in this sense, it will be poor into the unified organization form, but the church itself consumes most of the absorption to wealth, for the number of poor is limited, but "sometimes seems to be a pain pills" of social discontent, it can reduce the effectiveness of the role and there is no cure. Church - based charity for the poor has been gradually adopted by the government into a comprehensive social security system. After expanding and adjusting the content and form of the social security system, the government has also extensively involved itself in important social issues such as poverty, disease and unemployment. This has played an important role in the universality principle embodied in the British social security system.
           資本主義為基督教的慈善事業奠定了物質基礎,基督教的慈善思想也為資本主義社會保障制度的發展奠定了精神和理論基礎。宗教文化在歐洲有著廣泛的影響,它總是提倡慈善?;浇绦Q“所有的人都是上帝的孩子,所有的人都是四海的兄弟。在歐洲早期,宗教倫理中的“仁愛”、“慈善救濟”的宣傳對后世產生了深遠的影響,在英國社會保障制度的建立中發揮了重要作用。同時,早期基督教社會實行的公共和平等分配財產的原則為英國建立福利分配方法提供了依據。宗教有著龐大的組織體系,從這個意義上講,它將貧窮轉化為統一的組織形式,但教會本身消耗的大部分是對財富的吸收,因為窮人的數量是有限的,但“有時似乎是一種止痛藥”的社會不滿,它能降低效率。沒有治愈的作用。教會為本的窮人慈善事業,已逐漸被政府采納為一個綜合性的社會保障制度。在擴大和調整社會保障制度的內容和形式后,政府也廣泛參與了貧困、疾病、失業等重要社會問題。這在英國社會保障制度中體現的普遍性原則中發揮了重要作用。

      Freedom is limited, but freedom should be aimed at the freedom of the majority of people, rather than the unlimited freedom of individuals as the old liberalism believed. The neoliberal doctrine has changed the traditional liberalism's opposition to state intervention, believing that freedom is not absolute and that "the state must intervene for the sake of freedom itself". It can be seen that neoliberals emphasize a new relationship between society and individuals, which is an interchangeable responsibility and obligation between society and individuals. It says countries on social economy and life positive intervention measures should be taken to prevent the liberalism and the economic system of the gap between rich and poor is bigger, but this kind of intervention is not an absolute and unlimited, is closely linked to the welfare of the individual and social welfare, the state intervention is not the ultimate goal, should put the individual freedom, individualism and collectivism coordination. "The state can take away part of an individual's property through taxation, because the state is necessary to maintain personal security, and the individual must pay a certain price for this." Neoliberals also argue that social problems are more the result of socioeconomic change.
           自由是有限的,但自由的目標應該是大多數人的自由,而不是像舊自由主義所相信的個人的無限自由。新自由主義理論改變了傳統自由主義反對國家干預的立場,認為自由不是絕對的,“國家必須為了自由而干預”??梢钥闯?,新自由主義者強調社會與個人之間的新關系,這是社會與個人之間可互換的責任和義務。它說,各國在社會經濟和生活上應該采取積極的干預措施,防止自由主義和經濟制度的貧富差距更大,但這種干預不是絕對的和無限的,與個人的福利息息相關。而社會福利、國家干預并不是最終目標,應把個人自由、個人主義和集體主義協調起來。”新自由主義者還認為社會問題更多的是社會經濟變化的結果,因為國家需要維護個人安全,個人必須為此付出一定的代價。

      Fabian theory holds that society is an organic whole, which is not only the synthesis of individuals or individuals, but also the combination of many individuals, and there is an appropriate coordination between individuals and society. We should attach importance to the whole, take the continuation of the society as the goal, and maximize the benefits through certain mutual assistance and cooperation. Economically, everyone has the right to pursue his own interests. In politics, the state has the right and obligation to ensure the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people. However, when the two conflicts occur, Fabian advocates that the government should intervene in social life to achieve social improvement and solve social problems. Only when everyone in the social system lives an equal, free and democratic life can he give full play to his potential and improve social benefits. Fabian socialist thought of social security emphasizes the bilateral responsibilities and obligations of the state and citizens, that is, both of them have the right to pursue the maximization of interests. It should be noted that although the capitalist private system in Britain was not very reasonable at that time, Fabian socialism did not emphasize the necessity to overthrow capitalism, but the establishment of a system similar to the socialist nature of national happiness to enhance people's happiness. Therefore, fabianism, as a theoretical basis, played a certain role in establishing a universal social security system and welfare system in Britain.
           法比安理論認為,社會是一個有機的整體,不僅是個體或個體的綜合,也是許多個體的結合,個體與社會之間存在著適當的協調。我們要重視整體,以社會的延續為目標,通過一定的互助合作,最大限度地提高效益。在經濟上,每個人都有權追求自己的利益。在政治上,國家有權利和義務確保大多數人獲得最大的幸福。然而,當這兩種沖突發生時,費邊主張政府干預社會生活,以實現社會進步,解決社會問題。只有社會制度中的每個人都過著平等、自由、民主的生活,才能充分發揮自己的潛能,提高社會效益。費邊社會主義社會保障思想強調國家和公民的雙邊責任和義務,即都有追求利益最大化的權利。應當指出的是,雖然當時英國的資本主義私有制并不十分合理,但法比安社會主義并沒有強調推翻資本主義的必要性,而是建立了一個類似于社會主義性質的國民幸福感提高的制度。海角。因此,法比安主義作為一種理論基礎,在英國建立普遍的社會保障制度和福利制度方面發揮了一定的作用。

      Capitalist system is not perfect, do not have self-adjusting mechanism. The "free competition" market economy will inevitably bring bankruptcy and unemployment. Keynes believed that government intervention in economic life could only control and adjust its function and efficiency. He elaborated the idea of state intervention in the economy and the theory of insufficient effective demand, hoping that the state would regulate the distribution of citizens, increase national consumption, promote economic growth and achieve full employment. At the same time, Keynes not only proposed that the government should intervene in the economy, but also explained how and to what extent. For example, the establishment of progressive tax system and the implementation of social security system such as minimum wage is a form and means for the state to intervene in the redistribution and expenditure of national income. This theory obviously influenced the process of establishing social security system in Britain.

      Britain was the cradle of the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution in Britain greatly promoted the development of industry and strengthened the ranks of the working class, which brought great material wealth to Britain. But with the development of industrialization, all kinds of social contradictions and problems come one after another. With the acceleration of urbanization and the increasing scale of cities, farmers are turning into workers and living by selling their labor force. It is easy for them to fall into poverty and helplessness. In the face of poverty and unemployment rising and various social problems, the ruling class in order to eliminate the consequences of industrialization to maintain its own long-term interests, in order to consolidate his rule, began in earnest the adjustment of the social welfare policy, accordingly puts forward some legislative policy, and established to poverty alleviation in this period as the main mission of the state institutions, and put forward a new way of guarantee, in the protection of laborer survival risk at the same time, improve the level of people's whole life, deal with the various problems in life, and promote the further development of the economy.

      Although the industrial revolution brought great material wealth to Britain, it also made the distribution of social wealth in Britain more and more unequal. On the one hand, the development of capitalist economy is very rapid, capitalists rely on the original accumulation to make their capital like a snowball rolling; On the other hand, the broad masses of laborers who lack means of production live in poverty for a long time. British society is in a period of polarization. Since the 19th century, serious poverty and unemployment have made social conflicts more acute than ever, and affected the security, stability and development of Britain. At this time, Britain was carrying out the expansion of foreign capitalism and constantly expanding its territory and colonies overseas. However, most British military candidates failed the physical examination, which was caused by long-term malnutrition. Without a strong military, foreign capital expansion is not only impossible, but also a threat to the security of the country. It can be seen that the poverty problem not only affects the political economy of Britain, but also seriously affects the military efficiency and management efficiency of British capitalism. The ruling class has increasingly realized that, through the reform of distribution mode, it is one of the basic measures to guarantee the stability of the country to give some support to these poor people and unemployed people so that they do not struggle in the poverty line. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt various means to establish a social security system, eliminate poverty and the gap between the rich and poor caused by poverty, and ease social contradictions.

      Soon after the World War I, pent-up consumer demand during the war began to expand, and Britain's economy boomed. But the good times did not last long. The economic crisis that began in 1929 in the United States almost swept over the entire capitalist world, with astonishing destructive force. The heavy burden of the crisis was gradually transferred to the vast number of workers, Britain was also severely affected by the economic crisis. There has been a serious decline in production, a large number of factories closed down, many enterprises and operators of the accumulation of instantaneous bubble, a large number of surplus goods, the destruction of social material wealth, a large number of productive forces have been idle, destroyed; Millions of workers have lost everything for a while. Unemployment has soared. Many schools are no longer enrolling students, and even public schools have been forced to close, leaving hundreds of thousands of students out of school. The credit crisis led to the collapse of Banks, all Banks were paralyzed, further expanded to the currency crisis, world trade also fell into contraction and stagnation; Agricultural prices plunged. In order to restore the economy, countries began to compete for the market again, their currencies depreciated, and the world market became smaller as a result. A new economic crisis broke out in 1937. Faced with this unprecedented crisis, the British government began to pay real attention to the construction of the social security system, expand the scope of social security, in order to cope with various problems caused by the economic crisis, comprehensive protection of people's basic living needs.

      The British government began to pay attention to the basic living conditions of the people in the World War I. During the war, the British government raised the social welfare level, especially in terms of children's welfare and medical care. After the World War II, a large number of servicemen and women needed to be re-employed, their illness and disability problems, the issue of allowances for the survivors of the war and so on needed to be solved. After the war, peace improved the material civilization of the British people, and the British government began to actively formulate social security programs to enable every citizen to live a decent life under any circumstances. So the social security program gradually expanded from the privilege of military personnel only to military families and then to all citizens, developed and improved the housing, living and urban environment of citizens, helped the unemployed and the poor get rid of misfortune and so on. The state has defined the social security system through legislation. At this time of the social security system has been thoroughly changed the wartime temporary emergency measures to alleviate the economic and social contradictions of the state, but as a long-term strategy, to promote the extensive development of the economic system and constantly improve and guarantee the basic life needs of all citizens, is an important part of the reconstruction program. This had a major impact on the establishment of a welfare state in Britain.


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